India China War 1962 | Why India Lost Sino-Indian War 1962

The  India China War is a story of betrayal of Indian friendship and trust by China . Sino-Indian War was also an outcome of some of the biggest and worst blunders in India’s strategic planning and diplomacy . The opposition parties blamed the government of the day for its failure to access the deteriorating situation on the border and reading  the Chinese intentions.

The Indian defeat in this war is an outcome of  continuous neglect of Indian Armed Forces , and  this  was the saddest part of the 1962 war. The 1962  war ,  is also a story of , how political interference in army’s command structure , can lead to , disastrous consequences.

This war had also exposed , some serious gaps in Indian strategic planning and defences. It is important to uncerstand these historical facts so that we do not allow this to ever happen again in future.

The  India China war was started by China on 20th October 1962 with the invasion of India by the Chinese army . The India China war lasted for almost a month and ended on 22nd November 1962 with unilateral cease-fire declared by China .

In this Sino Indian war , India had lost strategically important Aksai-chin  area of  the Indian territory to China and almost three thousand brave Indian soldiers  who laid down their life and fought till their last breath.

The wounds inflicted by China to India during this Sino-Indian war has still not healed even after the passage of over fifty years. This war has taught many important lessons  to  India and was a turning point in India China relations.

China Invades India 1962
India China War  News Paper Reports  1962

The wounds inflicted by this war on India  , during this Sino-Indian war  has still not healed even after the passage of over fifty years. This war has taught many important lessons  to India and this was a turning point , in India China relations.

In order to understand the chain of events that led to this war , we must look back in the history , and how  India China relations had evolved between 1950 onwards till first India China war , in 1962 .

Watch Special Report On India China war 1962

India China Relations before Sino-India  War 1962

Both India and China got their independence more or less at the same time but each followed different ideologies. China  opted for single part rule communist model and India followed  a democracy .

The Chinese Civil War :

In order to understand  India China relations before India China war , we need to look back in history . The Chinese civil war fought during 1927 to 1950  between the Nationalist party of China and communist party of China .

The Nationalist Party of China was led by  Chiang Kai Shek  which was supported by western countries including US. whereas the Communist Party Of China was led by Mao Zedong which was supported by Russia.

India-China War 1962
Chinese Civil War

During Chinese civil war , Japan had invaded China and  occupied some Chinese territory . However , with defeat and surrender of  Japan  after the end of  second world war , The Japanese occupation of China also came to an end .

The Chinese civil war ended with the victory of communist party which controlled the major part of China and the creation of the People’s Republic of China. The Chinese communist party had eventually taken the firm grip on China by 1949 after a prolonged battle  with China’s Nationalist party . The Nationalist Party lost the civil war and was restricted to the newly formed state of Taiwan .

The Crucial Indian Support to China ( Year 1947 to 1959 )

The newly formed Peoples Republic Of China ruled by the Communist party initially faced major challenges and had to struggle for its recognition as a legitimate representative of the state of China.  The western countries including the United States were against the communist party ruled China and supported the Nationalist party ruled  Taiwan which was a democracy.

During this time , India provided crucial support to the communist party ruled China in getting the crucial recognition. In fact , India became the first country to give this crucial initial recognition and established formal diplomatic ties with the newly formed the People’s Republic of China.

India China War , Bilateral Relations 1950
India China, Bilateral Relations 1950 Till 1958

The Indian government led by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru  declined the most important permanent seat at UN security council offered by United States to India  and instead passed this crucial seat to China in 1960 . This decision by PM Nehru  had serious ramifications for India .

India is still paying the price for allowing China to get a permanent seat in UN Security Council. China is now misusing the veto power against India to provide a shield to an international terrorist and Mumbai attack mastermind Hafiz Sayyed.

China India War 1962
Indian PM Jawaharlal Nehru  Gifted  to China  UN Security Council Permanent Seat Offered  To  India By  US

India-China  Panchsheel  Agreement ( Year 1954 )

In post independence period  , India China relations were quite good  despite the existence of  unsettled border dispute between the two countries . The Indian  government led by Congress party  had continued its policy  of extending full support  to  China  on all important international  issues including the illegal occupation of Tibet by China  .

The western countries led by the US had opposed the illegal occupation of Tibet by China . The Indian blind support to a communist party ruled China on many such issues was one of the important reason why US policies were not favourable to India during this period.

India China War 1962 Tibet Issue
India China War 1962 , China Captured Tibet , Tibet Issue

There was a regular exchange to visits between the leaders of China and India during this period . The warmth in the relations due to frequent mutual exchange visits led to the famous Panchsheel agreement signed between the two countries in year 1954 .

The leadership of both the countries agreed  to lay down the foundation of  India China relations based on the five principles of peaceful coexistence, known as the Panchsheel.

 The five principles of Panchsheel Agreement  are :

  1. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  2. Mutual non-aggression.
  3. Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
  4. Equality and cooperation for mutual benefit.
  5. Peaceful co-existence.

Indian PM Jawaharlal Nehru had said, “If these principles were recognized in the mutual relations of all countries, then indeed there would hardly be any conflict and certainly no war.”

Sino-Indian War
Imdian PM Jawaharlal Nehru And Panchsheel Agreement

The Chinese Invasion Of Tibet

Tibet was an independent Buddhist nation in the Himalayas land locked between India and China along northern front of Indian border . Tibet was a peaceful Buddhist country  and  had little contact with the rest of the world . Tibet was ruled by its political and  spiritual leader Dalai Lama.

By now the Chinese communist party had firmly established itself  and  the Chinese government led by communist party Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai . The annexation of Tibet by China was in fact the beginning of Chinese expansionist policies and the Chinese army invaded Tibet .

India China War 1962 , China Annexed Tibet
China Annexed Tibet In 1950 , US  And Western Contries Opposed this Occupation

China annexed Tibet and declared Tibet as part of China in year 1959 .The Chinese illegal occupation was vehemently opposed by Tibetan people led by their spiritual leader Dalai Lama. Surprisingly, despite strong objections raised by western countries and the US , the Indian government decided to remain completely silent on this Chinese invasion of  Tibet.

The Communist Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1950 led to the revolt against Chinese occupation and years of turmoil . The Chinese military action against these protests led to the complete overthrow of the Tibetan Government led by Dalai lama. The Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama along with 100,000 Tibetans  moved to India in  self-imposed exile in 1959.

The Indian government led by PM Jawaharlal Nehru decided to offer shelter to Dalai lama and a large number of  Tibetan population purely on humanitarian grounds .  However , India’s action to offer shelter to spiritual leader Dalai Lama created a major rift between India and China . Dalai Lama formed Tibetan government in exile  in Dharmashala , in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh .  China viewed these developments as Indian support for the people of Tibet and their aspiration for independence from Chinese occupation.

Sino Indian war 1962
Indian  PM Jawaharlal Nehru  with   Tibetan Spiritual Leader  Dalai Lama

The Deterioration Of India China Relations  Start

India China Boundary Dispute 

India and China share boundary that spread across  three sectors . On Eastern Sector along Arunachal Pradesh and this area is also NEFA ( National Eastern Frontier Authority), the Central Sector along Sikkim and the Western Sector along Aksai –Chin area.

Eastern Sector – Arunachal Pradesh ( Previous NEFA )

China illegally captured Tibet and claims the Indian territory Arunachal Pradesh ( NEFA Area ) as south Tibet . China in the past had proposed  to accept the Indian claim on  Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh ( NEFA ) in the eastern sector against the Chinese claim on  Aksai-chin in the western sector.

The NEFA region is the largest Indian territory claimed by China covering around 90000 sq. km and India have completely rejected the Chinese claim. This area  was formally called as NEFA – North East Frontier Agency.

India China Conflict 1962
India China Conflict, NEFA Sector Arunachal Pradesh

During the 1962 war, the Chinese army had invaded almost 60 km inside the Indian NEFA region. However , after the cease-fire, the Chinese army went back to  the line of actual control before the war respecting the international boundary ( McMahon Line ).

China has claimed this entire area of Arunachal Pradesh and  using this area as leverage to negotiate with India for strategically important Aksai-Chin on the western sector . And for this reason, China had recently objected to the visit of  Dalai Lama to Tawang monastery as a reminder to its untenable claim.

The 1962 India China war started with a dispute over the sovereignty of the widely separated Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh ( NEFA )  border regions. Aksai Chin, claimed by India which belongs to Kashmir and also claims by China to be part of Xinjiang region . Aksai-chin  contains an important road link that connects the Chinese regions of Tibet and Xinjiang. China’s construction of this road was one of the triggers of the conflict.

India China War - Boundary Dispute
India China War – Boundary Dispute

Central Sector – Indian Territory Sikkim

China has accepted  the Indian annexation of state of Sikkim as part of India in year 2006 . However , China wants to use the Sikkim card to pressurize  the Indian government against Dalai Lama’s activities in India .

The Chinese expansionism is threatening the smaller countries like Bhutan . China recently tried to construct road Inside Bhutan’s territory which is strategically important for India . India had to intervene to help Bhutan and deployed its army against China  to stop the Chinese illegal activities . This led to the Recent standoff between India and China in Doklam area of Bhutan.

India China War Doklam
India China War Doklam

Western Sector – Aksai –Chin Area

China claims Aksai –Chin area of the Indian territory . China captured this area in India-China 1962 war and China did not vacate this area after cease-fire . Since then , this Indian area is under Chinese possession .

The Indian Aksai Chin area was originally a part of the state of Jammu and Kashmir . China claims this Indian territory as part of its autonomous Xinjiang region.

The Aksai-chin area  is the second largest area claimed by China which  covers  over 38000 sq. km. However,  this area is strategically important for India which mainly consists of uninhabited land.

India firmly claims the entire Aksai Chin area forcibly  captured by China and the Shaksgam valley  . Pakistan had gifted Shaksgam valley  area to China  to settle the borders with China in 1960 . China also claims the  Indian control over Daulat Beg Oldi where world’s highest airstrip is located .

India China War 1962 , China Captured Aksai Chin
India China War 1962 , China Captured  Indian Territory , Aksai Chin in 1962 War

The Chinese Provocation Before Starting War ( Year 1959 to 1962 )

The Indian territory Aksai Chin was not being regularly patrolled by the Indian forces  . India had also not developed any road network and other support infrastructure in Aksai-Chin  area .

Taking advantage of non-presence Indian forces in Aksai chin area , the Chinese unilaterally started the road construction and forward posts for the Chinese army . India’s lack of patrolling in Aksai chin area helped  the Chinese to  Constru the roads   inside the Indian territory of Aksai-Chin without getting noticed by Indian forces .

By the time these Chinese activities came to India’s notice , China had already built a road . India had strongly objected to these Chinese activities. In order to counter the Chinese activities, India started conducting regular patrolling and forward deployment of Indian forces along the border .

By 1961 , regular  skirmishes started between the Indian and Chinese forces deployed along the border and the Chinese forces started regularly attacking the Indian troops patrolling the Indian border .

However , despite these Chinese provocations, the Indian political leadership failed to sense the Chinese intentions and also  did not initiate any defensive  measures to defend  the Indian borders.

India-China War
India China War 1962 Aksai Chin Area in the Western Sector

Opposition Party’s Criticism  Of  PM Nehru’s China Policy 

PM Nehru had to face the worth of opposition parties who severely criticized his China policy . The main opposition party BJP led by Atal Bihari Bajpai had even brought for the first time a  “No Confidence Motion” against the Congress government led by PM Nehru. The opposition also started building up within the Congress party  against PM Nehru’s lenient approach to China.

China  Invades India on 20th October 1962

By 1959 , India China border witnessed a series of violent border conflicts between Indian and Chinese forces deployed along the border . The Tibetan people were up in arms against the Chinese occupation . After the 1959 Tibetan uprising, Indian leadership decided to give asylum to the Tibetan political and spiritual leader Dalai Lama. Dalai Lama along with 1,00,000 refugees had fled to India to avoid the Chinese atrocities .

India had also initiated the Forward Policy in which mainly consist of forward deployment of Indian  outposts along the border to strengthen the Indian position . As forward Policy , India built several posts along the north of the McMahon Line and also along the eastern portion of the Line of Actual Control . The  Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai  had proclaimed this position as Line Of  Actual Control in 1959.

India China War , Forward Deployment
India China War , Forward Deployment

The alarming rise in the frequent clashes between the two armies , it was evident that war is now imminent. Despite these events , the  Indian leadership decided to remain in a false sense of security and no efforts were made to prepare for the war . In fact , PM Jawaharlal Nehru and his Defence Minister V K Krishna Menon were warned by then Army Chief General Thimayya, who had submitted a detailed report on the urgent measures needed to strengthen Indian defences. This report was ignored stating as alarmist.

Unable to reach a political consensus with Indian leadership  on disputed territory along the 3,225 kilometer ( 2000 mile) long Himalayan border and the fear of Indian intervention in Tibet, the Chinese army launched surprise  attack  simultaneously  on two fronts  in Ladakh and Chinese army troops  also crossed  the McMahon Line  on  20 October 1961.

India China War
India China War 1962

This war was completely a one-sided war as neither the political leadership nor the Indian army had prepared for this war . Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was in the state of shock as he had blindly trusted Chinese leadership and never expected  China  to launch an attack on India.

As a result , the  Chinese troops could easily advance over Indian forces in both the eastern and western sector . The ill-equipped  Indian army soldiers were fighting with 2nd world war .303 bolt action rifles which could fire only one bullet at a time whereas the Chinese army was equipped with latest AK-47 automatic assault rifles. Due to lack of  preparation  , the Indian army could deploy only 20000 soldiers against 80000 well-equipped Chinese soldiers . Despite these limitations , the Indian soldiers fought and laid down their lives to defend the motherland.

Sino-Indian War 1962
Indian Soldiers were fought with .303 Rifles And Chinese soldiers fought with latest AK-47 Assault Rifles

The Chinese leadership successfully managed to give a false sense of security to the Indian leadership .It was evident that China had been planning and preparing for this war for a long time . The Chinese army  had very well prepared for this war and had established crucial supply lines to provide the necessary support to the advancing Chinese troops .

China India war lasted for almost one month and ended  with the unilateral cease-fire declared by China on 20th November 1962  as they had achieved the objectives . India had lost entire western front Aksai- Chin area  and  this area still continues to be under Chinese occupation.

On the eastern front in NEFA ( Arunachal Pradesh ) area ,  The Chinese army had  advanced  60 km right inside the McMahon line. However , the Chinese army went back to their previous positions after the war and vacated the area captured during the war on the eastern front NEFA region .

India China Conflict McMahon Line
India China Line Of Actual Control – McMahon Line

Why India Lost  India-China War 1962.

The government of India appointed a committee to analyze  Sino-Indian war and this committee submitted a report ( Henderson Brooks–Bhagat Report )  . However , the findings of this report have not been declassified by the Indian government till date .

However , based on the media reports and the information available in the public domain, following factors were found to be responsible for India’s defeat in this India China war.

  1. Failure to assess  the border Situation  by Indian political leadership.
  2. Failure Of the Indian Defence Ministry.
  3. Diplomatic failure.
  4. Leadership Failure by some Indian Army Officers.
  5. Lack Of Infrastructure along India-China Border.
  6. Lack of Preparation And Training by the Indian army.
  7. Indian Intelligence Failure.
  8. India did not use Indian Airforce.
  9. Superior Chinese Leadership, Planning And well-equipped army.

Situation Assessment Failure by Indian political leadership

The Indian Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s China policy had completely failed and  his personal friendship with Chinese leadership could not stop the Chinese invasion of India. PM Nehru could not access  the deteriorating situation on the border and the Chinese intentions despite the chain of events and repeated attacks on Indian troops.

PM Nehru’s personal ambition to become a world leader did not allow him to take a firm stand against the Chinese expansionist policies and the opposition parties often severely criticized his soft approach to China.

India did not protest or opposed the Chinese annexation of Tibet. India also failed to align with western countries including the United States against the Chinese aggression on Tibet. India also did not raise the issue of illegal Chinese  occupation of Tibet at United Nations  and the atrocities committed by the Chinese armed forces on Tibetan people who protested against the invasion of their motherland.

PM Nehru  also could not decisively act on the  recommendations of  the Indian army  General  K S Thimayya who served as Indian Army Chief  during the crucial period of 1959 to 1961 .

The 1962 India China war  and subsequent  Indian defeat was a major blow to PM Nehru .  He had never expected such betrayal by China . His famous slogan of “Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai “ had turned in to open hostility between the two countries .

Failure Of the Indian Defence Ministry

The Indian Defence Ministry was headed by  defence minister V K Krishna Menon  who was also considered to be very close to the Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and he was considered to be the second most powerful person after the PM.

One of the most important factors responsible for India’s defeat in this war was lack of  preparedness of Indian armed forces especially the Indian army . During his tenure as defence minister , V K Krishna Menon is severely criticized for his failure to modernize the Indian Armed Forces . He is also accused of  completely undermining the impending Chinese threat.

China India War
Indian PM Jawaharlal Nehru with Defence Minister Krishna Menon

During this war , the Indian infantry soldiers were fighting with world war 2  .303 bolt action rifle whereas the Chinese soldiers fought this battle with latest automatic AK-47 assault rifles .

The most glaring and serious  lapse during his tenure as defence minister was his  failure to act on the  Report recommended by  then Army Chief  , General K S Thimayya . This report warned and  highlighted the impending threat of Chinese attack  and required preparation by the Indian army.

General Thimayya had recommended  to strengthen the Indian defences based on the Report submitted by deputy Lt-Gen SPP Thorat who had prepared a detailed report on the changing situation along the Chinese border in NEFA area and the impending threat of  Chinese invasion.

India China War 1962
India China War 1962 , Lt Gen Thorat Report

In his report , Lt-Gen Thorat had warned against the impending Chinese threat . This report was forwarded by General S V Thimayya to the Defence Minister Krishna Menon . However , Defence Minister Krishna Menon completely ignored this most important report and  did not act on this crucial strategic input.

The Defence minister  V K Krishna Menon also had major differences with Army Chief  , General K S Thimayya  on many issues . Because of these differences , General K S Thimayya  had even tendered his resignation which was, later on, he had revoked after the intervention from by PM Nehru . The Defence minister  V K Krishna Menon had to resign in the middle of  the ongoing war but he was continued as an advisor to PM Nehru .

Diplomatic Failure

The 1962, Sino-Indian war  also a culmination of failure of the Indian diplomacy although PM Nehru had sizable clout in international diplomacy . The Indian leadership and the foreign policy had failed to resolve the border dispute with China .

The Indian leadership ignored the Chinese claims till 1955 . The alarm bell started ringing when China’s publications started  showing major portion of western Aksai chin area and  the eastern NEFA area as Chinese territory . However despite these provocations , the Indian leadership remained silent on these issues instead of  taking up these issue with China through diplomatic channels.

India China War , Bilateral Relations
India China War , Bilateral Relations

The Indian “Forward Policy”  of  deploying the post in forward positions along the area claimed by China also backfired . Further , these posts were not even provided crucial support  including arms and ammunition . The Chinese forces started attacking these Indian forward posts .

Leadership Failure by some Indian Army  Officers

The Indian army also had its share of  officers who failed to perform in crucial leadership roles . One such name which is prominently referred is Lieutenant General  B M Kaul .

During India China war in 1962, he was appointed as the commander of the IV Corps in the northeastern  NEFA region . He was  believed to be very close to PM Nehru and the Defence Minister V K Krishna Menon .

His promotion as core commander was objected by  Army Chief General Thimayya as he had experience and expertise only in logistics . He did not have any prior combat operations experience . He became sick on the first day of the war and moved to Delhi for his treatment . He was accused of  not providing effective leadership during this India China war.

The Lack Of Infrastructure along India-China Border

The Chinese forces were relatively very well prepared and China had also created the necessary infrastructure including the roads. Whereas the Indian side was totally unprepared and  the absence of  roads caused major problems for providing the crucial supplies to the forward potions.

India China War 1962 , Poor Road Network
India China War 1962 , Poor Road Network

Failure Of Indian Intelligence

The failure of  crucial intelligence  inputs and  lack of such crucial information helped  the Chinese army  to keep the element of surprise in this operation . Till 1962 , India did not even have a dedicated  external  intelligence agency . This war was said to be  the  greatest intelligence failure in Indian history .

However after the war , in year  1968 , the Indian government decided to establish the “Research and Analysis Wing “  ( RAW ) a dedicated external intelligence agency . The RAW  was established in 1968 following the intelligence failures of the Sino-Indian War, This decision has helped India during 1971 war with Pakistan .

India China War 1962
India China War 1962

Decision Not to Use Indian Air Force

The 1962 Sino-Indian war fought mainly between the two armies.  The fear of escalation kept the Indian leadership away from using the Indian Air force. Although during this war , the Indian air force was relatively better equipped and its use could have been very effective.

The Indian air force in 1962 had a sizable number of combat aircraft which includes Hunter, Mystere fighters and the Canberra medium bombers. The IAF inventory also had  a squadron of photo-reconnaissance Canberra and  some relatively old 75  slow speed , less capable Toofani and Vampire fighters and  30 Gnat Mk.1 fighters.

The Indian reconnaissance planes had spotted the Chinese movements and road construction activities across the border. The subsequent analysis revealed that the use of Indian air force could have made a big difference  in this war . By not using the IAF ,  India failed to leverage the upper hand  in air superiority .

India China War 1962, IAF Not Used
India China War 1962, IAF Not Used

Superior Chinese Leadership , Planning And  War Preparation

The Chinese leadership managed diplomatic engagement with India with military precision. The Chinese leadership had successfully managed to keep the Chinese intentions and war preparation a closely graded secret.

Subsequently , it was evident that China had been planning and preparing for this war for a long time . The Chinese leadership  had successfully managed to give a false sense of security to the Indian leadership which helped the Chinese army to launch this attack which caught the Indian side completely off guard.

International Reaction to Sino-Indian War 1962

The India China war could not get much attention due to Cuban missile crises which kept both Russia and the United States engaged . The international media was also distracted and remained focused on Cuban missile crises which brought the world close to the nuclear war .

PM Nehru had approached President Kennedy for help . India being a democracy , US response was favourable to India .The US had come to India’s rescue and helped India with arms . US had also agreed to intervene and provide military support to Indian forces . Infect US plans  were  ready to send the USS Kitty Hawk aircraft carrier to the Bay of Bengal to support India .

India China War
Indian PM Nehru With US President J F Kennedy

Surprisingly , the Soviet Union , India’s old trusted friend took a neutral stand in India China war despite its serious ideological differences with China. The Soviet press reports also tilted towards China.

The Soviet Union’s tilt towards China became clear when the Soviet Union suspended the crucial supplies for MiG fighters under the agreement reached between the two sides in August 1962  .However these supply was resumed after the war was over .

Has India Learned any Lesson ?

And the answer is unfortunately , NO . Let us face this reality.

The India–China border dispute still continues to be unresolved. The Indian territory of Aksai Chin captured by China during the war , continues to be under the Chinese possession  . The discussion between India and China at various levels have so far not yielded any meaningful resolution.

Both Indian and Chinese economies have grown and also the military might . However , the gap in the military capabilities has grown in China’s favour . The Indian military capabilities could not  keep the same pace as that of China during the Congress party rule of  seventy years over India , after independence .

The reports of  corruption scams in major weapon system acquisition programs during the Congress rule deprived the Indian armed forces from getting the latest weapons which has adversely affected the Indian military modernization program .

Although , there has been considerable improvement in Indian military modernization process after Narendra Modi government came to power in 2014 . The Modi government has also initiated major construction projects and  the development of road network along India China border to improve the border infrastructure .

India China Conflict
India’s Latest  Weapon Systems  Acquired  By  Modi Government – Rafale Fighter, Apache Helicopters And S-400 System

However , the gap between India and Chinese military capabilities is considerably high in Chinese favour . For example, China has already developed fifth-generation fighter aircraft whereas the Indian forth generation LCA Tejas  fighter project is still in the development stage .

There has been a considerable decline in Indian Air Force combat capabilities primarily due to the declining number of IAF squadron numbers. The Indian Air  Force squadron number has declined to a dangerously low level of 31 squadrons as against  required strength of 42 squadrons needed to effectively face the two front war .

The Indian political parties compulsions to politicize every major weapon acquisition program for the armed forces runs into some trouble , which is adversely affecting the Indian military modernization program  . The recent Rafale Deal  signed by Modi government with France is another example of how a conflicting political interest can override the national interest . The French Rafale is a 4.5 generation fighter which can give Indian Air Force a clear edge over its adversaries .

Conclusion

The India China relations have been severely affected due to unprovoked Chinese aggression . Although the economic and trade relations between the two countries have considerably improved because it is in Chinese favour . The booming Indian economy and rapidly growing consumer market in India offer huge potential for Chinese companies.

Booming Indian Economy And Consumer Market
Booming Indian Economy And Consumer Market

It is now clear that , China  at this point of time  does not want to settle the boundary dispute with India  for obvious reasons . China views the booming Indian economy , and the rapidly growing Indian military strength , as a serious potential threat  to its main objective of being a superpower , by dislodging the United States.

China is equally concerned, about the growing warmth in relations , and the strategic alliance shaping up , between India and US . However , China is pretty much aware of the Indian weakness , and the vulnerability.

China believes that  in the event of military conflict  with India , China will have upper hand and therefore , keeping the border dispute unresolved  suits China at this point of time .

The Chinese army , still regularly intrudes into the Indian territory  without any fear  , deliberately  to keep the pressure on , On the Indian leadership  and also as a reminder  to keep the untenable Chinese territorial claims .

India China Border Conflict
India China Border Conflict , Chinese Army Regularly Intrudes Into India

Further, China will continue to take such liberties with India in future , primarily  due to limitations of Indian responses to such border violations by China. As a counter strategy, India needs to rapidly modernize its armed forces , and build the military muscle, to create effective deterrence  and then negotiate with China from the position of strength.

India should also continue to play a leadership role in forging the QUAD alliance, rapidly shaping up  between the  United States , India , Japan , and Australia. The QUAD alliance is necessary, for the regional security and to contain the Chinese territorial ambitions and expansionist policies under control.

The recent standoff  between Indian and Chinese armies at DOKLAM, is clear indication of Modi government’s resolve , to take the China head on , if required. The Chinese hostile attitude and anti-India policies will be counterproductive, which will push India, to play a crucial role, against the Chinese interest.

India China Standoff
India China Relation

The border dispute with China , can be resolved, only when India significantly improves its military capability , which will allow India to negotiate with China  from the position of strength .

China is currently exploiting the Indian weaknesses, in the military capabilities, as a result of continuous neglect , by successive Indian governments. whereas , the main Chinese objective, is to contain India , under the pretext of the border dispute. India Cannot be a financial superpower, without being a military superpower.

India also needs to develop, closer economic ties with China , on mutually beneficial terms . The Geopolitical compulsions constrained China , to settle the border dispute with Russia. Similarly , The ongoing Chinese trade war between the US and China , might create a favourable situation , for both India and China , to enhance the trade relations and  settle the border dispute , once in for all  .

China India War 1962 , Trade Relations
China India War 1962 , Trade Relations

This is a crucial period , for both ,  Chinese and Indian economy . China needs the Indian market  , and  India needs Chinese Investment. And therefore ,  India  should continue to engage with China ,  to find a political resolution , to the border dispute between the two countries.

We can only hope , at this point of time , that rationality would prevail , and Both India and China will soon workout , a win-win solution.

India China War 1962  Video Report

 

 

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